Soft and hard tissues around the teeth are called periodontal tissues. Periodontology is the branch of dentistry which deals with the diseases and treatments of these regions. Fibers which are called periodontal ligament, gums and jaw bones form periodontal tissues. So, what are gum diseases, periodontal tissue diseases? How is it treated?


Healthy Gingiva and Periodontal Tissues

Healthy gum does not bleed. It looks tight, pale, pink and matte. There is 1-2 mm gum groove on the neck of the tooth. Gum diseases begin and progress here. If you are looking for dental treatment prices in Turkey please check our prices page.

Gum Diseases

Periodontal diseases are bacterial sourced infections. They form a progressive destruction of the surrounding tissues. This loss which occurs when gum health deteriorates progresses, even a decayed tooth may shake to cause loss. It can affect one or more teeth. Microbial dental plaque creates inflammation in the gum. The inflammation in the gingiva progresses and spreads to the tissue that connects teeth to the bone.

How to Tell Gingivitis

Gingivitis is a term that describes the infection on the gum. The following symptoms indicate gingivitis;Gums are edematous, bright and red.Bleeding occurs during brushing your teeth.The form and appearance of the gingiva is disrupted.It is painlessGingivitis progresses after the above mentioned symptoms and spreads to hard tissues and becomes periodontitis. The formed periodontal pocket makes cleaning even more impossible and facilitates disease progression.

What are the symptoms of periodontitis?

In the case of periodontitis, the gums bleed even when there is no contact with the gums.Perplexity of teeth occurs in tooth alignment.Teeth may sway.The gums begin to pull up.Smell and bad taste happen.Pain and tenderness may occur as the root surfaces of the gum are exposed.As the condition progresses, teeth may be lost.

Treatment of Gum Diseases

During the gingivitis stage, gingival health is achieved by paying attention to dental hygiene and oral hygiene. Periodontal pocket formation should be eliminated and the area should be cleaned. The aim of periodontal treatments is to clean the plaque and dental stones containing the bacteria that are the source of infection and to ensure the hygiene of the environment and the continuity of this hygiene. During the post treatment stage, the patient should pay attention to oral hygiene and maintain this good condition. You could also have gum contouring or gum surgery before your veneers in turkey done.

Causes of Gum Diseases

The main cause of gum diseases are bacterial plaques. Subsequent to plaque formation (if not removed), the formation of calculus begins with the accumulation of calcium in the saliva. This is followed by plaque deposition and dental calculus formation again. The bacterial plaque first affects the soft tissues (gums). From there it spreads to the bone after the ligament and causes destruction. Check who approach for more reasons.Factors Causing Bacterial Plaque Formation:Poor oral hygieneInadequate and incorrect tooth brushingNot using flossFailure to perform regular oral controlsOther factors that cause gum diseases are:Genetic factorsMedicinesUnbalanced and malnutritionPregnancySmokingStressSystemic factors (diseases affecting the body's defense system)Is It Possible to Prevent Gum Diseases?It is possible to be protected from diseases by taking care of one's teeth and going to the dentist for regular checks and cleaning the dental stones.


It occurs as a result of the accumulation and organization of bacteria in the saliva, teeth, tongue and cheeks. It contains millions of bacteria. It becomes a more robust and developing structure with the effect of consumed foods. Different types of bacteria are added to the structure of the plaque over time. Acids of the digestive product of bacteria in the plaque also cause tooth decay. Brushing teeth twice daily and flossing once prevents plaque formation and continuity.

Tooth Calculus

The supragingival calculus is visible on the gum. It is most commonly seen on the upper first molar, which is the place where the salivary gland ducts open to the mouth, and on the tongue facing surfaces of the lower incisors.Tooth stone under the gum limit is called subgingival calculus. It is invisible and more firmly bonded.Supragingival and subgingival occur together or separately.

DDS PhD Özkan Özkaynak
Article written by
DDS PhD Özkan Özkaynak